As we continue our mission of protecting children’s health, integrative pediatrician Dr. Rosen and I write about the changes in children's health over the last decade, and what we can do about it. We can each change one thing, and we hope this article in EXPLORE: The Journal of Science and Healing will inspire you to find one positive change to make for our kids' health.
Below is the current state of children’s health in 20 fast facts. The Deirdre Imus Environmental Health Center® strives to turn these facts around through education, research and advocacy. Children are our greatest resource. Their environment shouldn’t harm them; they cannot protect themselves. We must!
ADD, ADHD, etc. - As of 2012, 1 in 10 children aged 3-17 years had been diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), an increase from 1 in 12 children in 2007. ADHD is more common in boys, and also among children with fair or poor health status. (CDC)
Allergies - Approximately 4.1 million US children under 18 have food allergies.
In 2007, 29% of children who had a food allergy also had asthma. (Allergy & Asthma Network)
Food and respiratory allergy prevalence increased with income level. Children with family income equal to or greater than 200% of the poverty level had the highest prevalence rates.The prevalence of skin allergies decreased with age. In contrast, the prevalence of respiratory allergies increased with age.The prevalence of food and skin allergies increased in children under age 18 years from 1997–2011. (CDC)
Arthritis -A 2007 CDC study estimates that 294,000 U.S. children under age 18 (or 1 in 250 children) have been diagnosed with arthritis or another rheumatologic condition. (CDC)age.
Asthma - One in every 10 children in the U.S. has asthma. Asthma is the most common long-term disease of children, and is one of the leading causes of school absenteeism, resulting in 10.5 million reported missed school days in 2013 alone (CDC). It costs approximately $27B per year.
Autism - About 1 in 68 children have been identified with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which occurs in all racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. ASD is almost 5 times more common among boys (1 in 42) than among girls (1 in 89). (CDC)
Bipolar - Mental health disorders afflict just over 20 percent of children at some point in their lives. These include mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders (NIH). Suicide was the second leading cause of death among children aged 12-17 years in 2010 (CDC). Mental health disorders are among the most costly conditions to treat in children, costing approximately $250B annually (AAP)
Bipolar disorder can run in families. Bipolar Disorder usually starts in late adolescence or early adulthood, but children can have bipolar disorder too. Community studies estimate lifetime prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders to be 0% to 3% among adolescents, depending on the assessment measure and the range of the spectrum considered (e.g., Bipolar II, cyclothymia). Prevalence of child-onset bipolar is not well established due to debate about the appropriate definition of caseness (or boundaries of diagnosis) among preadolescents. (NIH)
Drug prescriptions for pediatric emotional, behavioral and mental health conditions have risen dramatically. Nearly 83,000 prescriptions for the antidepressant fluoxetine were written in 2014 for children ages two and under, reflecting a 23 percent increase from the year before. In this same age group, almost 20,000 prescriptions for antipsychotic medications were written in 2014, a 50 percent jump from 2013 (NY Times).
Cancer: Childhood cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death among children and adolescents (ages 1-19 years) in the United States, although cancer among children is rare. It is estimated that 15,780 children and adolescents ages 1-19 years will be diagnosed with cancer and 1.960 will die of the disease in the United States. (CDC)
Child Welfare - In a 2007 UNICEF survey, the U.S. and Britain ranked last among 21 affluent countries assessed on the welfare of children. The criteria included a range of indicators, from infant mortality to whether children ate dinner with their parents or were bullied at school. (UNICEF, Innocenti Report Card 7: Child Poverty in Perspective, 2007)
Children in Poverty -More than 16 million children in the United States, 22% of all children, live in families with incomes below the federal poverty level. The federal poverty level is $24,550 a year for a family of four. (National Center for Children in Poverty, Columbia University)
Chronic Diseases-Chronic diseases: As of 2012, about half of all adults—117 million people—have one or more chronic health conditions. One of four adults has two or more chronic health conditionsChronic diseases including heart disease, stroke, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes, are the leading cause of mortality in the world, representing 60% of all deaths. Out of the 35 million people who died from chronic disease in 2005, half were under 70 and half were women. This invisible epidemic is an under-appreciated cause of poverty and hinders the economic development of many countries. Contrary to common perception, 80% of chronic disease deaths occur in low and middle income countries. Chronic diseases kill twice the number of people than all infectious diseases (including HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria), maternal and perinatal conditions, and nutritional deficiencies combined. There are three well-established and well-known causes for most chronic diseases: unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and tobacco use. Conditions before birth and during childhood affect health during adult life. (CDC)
Diabetes - About 208,000 young people under 20 years of age have diabetes,approximately 0.25% of that population. Most of them have type 1 diabetes. Approximately 30 million children and adults have diabetes in the United States. Out of that number, nearly 95% have type 2 diabetes (National Diabetes Education Program, NIH)
Infant Mortality -The infant mortality rate in the Unites States 6.17 per 1,000 live births. There are 55 countries that have a better infant mortality rate compared to the United States. (CIA)
Obesity - In the past 30 years childhood obesity has doubled in children and quadrupled in adolescents. (CDC)
Childhood obesity is now the number one health concern among parents in the United States. (American Heart Association)
OCD -1 in 200 Kids and Teens have OCD. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, or OCD, affects approximately 2.2 million adults; one-third developed symptoms as children. OCD is an anxiety disorder characterized by persistent, unwelcome thoughts and/or repetitive behaviors, and can also be accompanied by eating disorders, other anxiety disorders, or depression. (National Institute of Mental Health, NIH)
Premature Birth - In 2012 nearly 1 in every 9 infants born in the United States were premature. (CDC)
The preterm rate has declined by 11 percent over the last 7 years. However, the U.S. preterm birth rate remains too high at 11.4 percent, which is higher than that of most developed nations.Premature birth is the number on killer of newborns. (March of Dimes)
Sickle Cell Anemia - Sickle cell anemia occurs in approximately 1 in every 500 African American births and 1 out of every 36,000 Hispanic American births. It is a condition in which red blood cells can become sickle-shaped and block blood flow. (NIH)
SIDS - In 2009, 2,226 infants passed away from SIDS.
Babies of mothers who smoke during pregnancy have a 3 times greater chance of SIDS. Babies who sleep on their tummies on top of soft bedding have 21 times greater risk of SIDS. (CJ Foundation for SIDS)
Most SIDS death occurs when babies are between two months and four months old. (NIH)
SUDC - As of 2011 SUDC occurs in children under 1 year old 69.7 times per 100,000 live births and 1.5 times per 100,000 in ages 1-4 years. (SUDC Foundation)
Tourette Syndrome - About 7 in 1,000 people have Tourette’s. (KidsHealth)
Since Tourette syndrome is a disorder of the nervous system, it often occurs with other problems such as ADHA, OCD, anxiety, and depression. Average onset occurs between the ages of 3 and 9 years. (NIH)
WHO Stats - The World Health Organization estimates that the environment significantly affects more than 80 percent of major diseases. That includes childhood cancer, diabetes and asthma. In addition, more than a third of diseases in children under the age of five are caused by environmental exposures. (World Health Organization)
Link to: The State of Women's Health
Last updated 6-7-2016